Japonia Hortus

key to understand the Japanese garden

Showa Period

       In Showa period, because of the Second World War,Japanese land was devastated and about ten years were neededto start retrieve parks and gardens. From 1954 to 1973, Japaneconomics powerfully developed and Tokyo Olympics and Expo'70in Osaka add momentum to the economy.Those events andhousing complexes provided green tracts, and pollution problemawoke people to think about the environmental issues to solve.
       As new technologies were invented, gardens were createdon roofs, terraces and places not common for gardens before.Incontrast, because of limitation of space in the cities, thegardens for private houses became very small.
Expo'70 Commemorative Park
Keio Plaza Hotel
       In Showa period, the major stream of garden style wasdivided in three; the raditional Japanese garden, Zoki garden andthe modern Japanese garden.
       Zoki garden was developed from naturalized garden of Meijiperiod. Zoki is a kind of trees which are planted near village forfirewood. These trees reminded people of their hometown andbecame popular to get away their daily life in the garden.Because Zoki is cut down regularly,the trees form multi-stemmedshapes and from Zoki gardens multi-stemmed trees becamecommon in the Japanese tree market.
       In Showa period, artists and architects were started toenroll in gardens. They were not bothered about taboos of thetraditional garden; for example, they cut natural stones in half orshowed chiseling marks to look architectural. Their influence andmodernism garden oversea mixed to traditional Japanese gardensto develop modern Japanese garden. Shigemori Mirei was agarden master who used upright stones and straight lines in theJapanese garden to modernize it. At first, he traveled all aroundJapan to create survey drawings of old traditional gardens, andthen he invented his own way to make modernized Japanesegardens. He thought that a garden was a three dimensional artand he interacted many artists such as Isamu Noguchi andDomon ken. Matsuo-taisha

History and Varieties of Japanese Garden